An Exploration of Crops Listed in Gwanhyuji, an Agricultural Book in the Joseon Dynasty for the Promotion of the Diversity of Urban Gardens

Article information

J. People Plants Environ. 2019;22(4):341-354
Publication date (electronic) : 2019 August 31
doi : https://doi.org/10.11628/ksppe.2019.22.4.341
National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju-gun 55365, Korea
Received 2019 May 22; Revised 2019 June 16; Accepted 2019 July 11.

Abstract

Urban agriculture, which promotes communication in vulnerable classes and the formation of social networks has been gaining attention with an emphasis on healthy city, elderly-friendly city, safe city and happy city as future keywords about urban life. There is a growing interest in public awareness in many areas such as health, society, economy, and ecology. As an attempt to improve the diversity of urban gardens, this study begins with collecting suitable crops for urban gardens from “Imwongyeongjeji (林園經濟志),” an encyclopedia written by Yoo-Ku Seo, a scholar in the 18–19th century. Out of those recorded in “Gwanhyuji (灌畦志),” 128 kinds of crops with linkage of the historical achievements of the realists who gave their priority to public welfare were selected and 53 crops which had traditionality, historicality, health functionality and popularity were finally selected. The properties (cold, warm, clam) of the selected crops were evenly distributed, and there was no crop that was hot and cool. In addition, the number of crops that have a sweet taste was the highest, followed by spicy and bitter, but there was no salty vegetable, which can be attributed to the fact that 12 namuls (wild vegetables) that grow in seas were excluded in this study since they were not suitable for urban gardens. Urban gardens can be transformed from those that focus on primary production and secondary consumption activities into a new resource that offers educational and traditional values by applying humanities to urban agriculture as a content resource in the era of cultural consilience and convergence. It is expected to satisfy urban residents’ intellectual and participatory needs and to enhance the diversity and utility of urban gardens by applying traditional knowledge to a new model of urban agriculture. We hope that further research will be conducted to develop new types and models of urban agriculture going forward.

Introduction

A variety of activities that utilize urban agriculture have demonstrated their values in various areas including health, society, economy and ecology, raising people’s interest in urban agriculture. The Ministry of Agriculture Food and Rural Affairs (MAFRA) has published the Master Plan for Promoting Urban Agriculture every five years, and the results of the first 5-year master plan (2013–2017) show that the area of urban gardens increased more than two times in 2017 (1,106 ha) compared to the area in 2013, and that the number of participants reached 1,894,000 (6.3 m2 per person). The second 5-year plan (2018–2022) also suggests strategies to increase the area of urban gardens and the number of participants to 2,000 ha and 4,000,000 persons respectively, which demonstrates that people’s interest in urban gardens continues to grow (MAFRA, 2018). Despite the increasing number and level of users, urban agriculture is still limited to certain crops that have been cultivated and utilized as foods only. With the aim of suggesting crops to promote the diversity and utility of urban gardens, Imwongyeongjeji (林園經濟志) was selected as a reference in this study. Imwongyeongjeji is a comprehensive agricultural book, a type of encyclopedia written by Seo, Yoo-Ku in the Joseon Dynasty period and contains abundant information on vegetables utilized in the 19th century in Joseon.

Out of 893 biological resources recorded in Imwongyeongjeji, this study aimed to select crops that can be utilized in modern times and integrate traditionality and historicality, and at the same time, health functionality and popularity that are required in modern society, focusing on native resources including vegetables listed in Gwanhyuji (灌畦志), grasses and tree sprouts, vegetables that grow on mountains and fields, vegetables that grow in seas, fruits and medicinal herbs. It is the list of crops that reflects the philosophy of Silhak, a Korean Confucian social reform movement in late Joseon that put people’s livelihood first. It is possible to focus on faithfulness in process rather than results by restoring the value of labor through the traditional philosophy called Silhak and to spread the epistemological interest as a philosophy of experience for better communication and consideration between neighbors (Sim, 2008). Social values can also be secured by increasing the ‘family ⋅ community (−1.4%)’ index, the only one that showed a low score among the items of the composite index of people’s quality of life in Korea (Statistic Korea, 2017), through humanistic urban agricultural activities. Lastly, this study aimed to provide information for people to apply the concept of Yaksikdongwon (藥食同源, food and medicine come from the same source) to daily life by identifying and informing urban residents of the taste and properties of crops that were recorded in Imwongyeongjeji and Donguibogam and were utilized to prevent diseases, and for them to enjoy and learn urban gardens in which they can be satisfied psychologically and emotionally by selecting crops that meet their needs. By doing so, urban agriculture is expected to play a role as a cultural space.

Research Methods

Subjects

This study was conducted from September to November, 2018 and explored and examined the content of Gwanhyuji (灌畦志), a part that introduced crops in Imwongyeongjeji (林園經濟志, one of many agricultural books in the Joseon Dynasty period that tell the stories and values of traditional life) and has been recognized as a historical content. In order to utilize historical and cultural resources with humanistic themes based on historical stories, folk stories and traditional knowledge written in ancient documents, documents on crops in Imwongyeongjeji, a voluminous encyclopedia written by Seo, Yoo-Ku (徐有榘, 1764–1845) between the late 18th century and the early 19th century were reviewed, and crops that connect the past and present and tell stories were selected and listed based on Gwanhyuji that introduced vegetables to utilize in urban agriculture (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1

The content of the study.

Criteria for the selection of crops

As facilities that are created for relaxation and production in vegetable gardens has been utilized widely, the purposes of using urban vegetable gardens have been diversified from producing crops to tending spaces for landscaping purposes and there is also a growing need for utilizing native resources (Hong et al., 2018). Against this backdrop, this study aimed to develop a model for vegetable gardens in order to expand the diversity of urban gardens and to realize urban agriculture as a culture that embraces publicness with its focus shifting from personal perspectives to community-based or socio-cultural perspectives.

Gwanhyuji contains information on farming vegetables and medicinal herbs, and shows the list of practical crops for fields that were selected and summarized from various agricultural books. ‘Hyu (畦)’ in Gwanhyuji (灌畦志) means a ridge, a key part in fields, and explains its landscaping values and management convenience as an eco-friendly farming technique in detail. For this reason, this study aimed to utilize not only popular knowledge but also native resources in exploring crops in order to conserve and distribute traditional values through urban agriculture and to promote the humanistic values of urban agriculture by utilizing plants that have cultural and historical contexts in urban agriculture without simply focusing on its physical purposes such as production. This study also attempted to select crops that embrace overall aspects including the time and space of actions, stories and subjects, and reflect social and cultural contexts that have been passed down by certain communities.

Analysis methods

This study coded data through comparison and analysis in the process of data analysis based on the grounded theory suggested by Glaser and Strauss (1967), and developed a framework based on the results to formulate a theory using a qualitative research methodology in the process of interpretative inquiry. Popularity was assessed through a questionnaire survey. First, crops (traditionality) mentioned in Imwongyeongjeji-Gwanhyuji, an ancient document (Seo, 2010), were listed according to their Korean and scientific name based on their Chinese character name. This study selected crops that have stories among those that were mentioned in folk songs such as Nonggawalryungga (農家月令歌) and Heungboga (興甫歌), and crops that were found to have values as ecological resources (historicality) through traditional knowledge in documents such as Donguibogam (東醫寶鑑) and Imwongyeongjeji (Yeom et al., 2011). At the same time, crops of which effects were identified and that were repeatedly introduced were prioritized in this study among native resources that have stories in which people are highly interested in modern society such as antioxidant effects (health functionality; Rural development administration-National academy of agricultural sciences, 2014) and Healthful crops in mountains and fields that introduces anti-aging crops (Jang, 2009). Through a questionnaire survey, crops that urban residents preferred were identified, and their availability (popularity) in markets was examined. According to these criteria, crops that were selected more than three times in each item were finally selected (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2

Process of crop search.

Results and Discussion

Traditionality

Imwongyeongjeji written by Seo, Yoo-Ku introduced the most basic things in human life (Kim, 2015), added ‘namuls (edible wild vegetables)’ in Joseon that were not mentioned in the Chinese literature and classified 28 wild plants of which sprouts were used to cook side dishes into a separate item, recognizing namuls as one of the key characteristics of Joseon foods. In Gwanhyuji composed of four books, 33 vegetables that were quoted in a total of 44 documents were mentioned in traditional agricultural books, and plants of which leaves and sprouts were used to cook side dishes were introduced as a group of namuls, unique Joseon foods. In addition, 27 types of plants that grow on mountains and fields were classified into the category of wild vegetables (Table 1). Other than those that grow on the ground, 12 types of namuls that grow in seas were also included in the category of vegetables, but since it is not easy to grow them in urban gardens, they were excluded from the category along with crops that grow in wetlands. Fruit-bearing plants (蓏類), unique edible plants in East Asia were separately categorized, and traditional medicinal herbs in Joseon that were used to cook namul side dishes such as Platycodon grandiflorum, Angelica gigas, Senna tora, Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zucc) Trautv., Glehnia littoralis, Arctium lappa L. and Plantango asiatica L. were found to be plants that commonly grew on mountains and fields in Joseon (Kim, 2015). The first record on vegetables used in Korea is Samgukyusa (三國遺事) on the myth of the creation of the first kingdom of Korea (Gojoseon) in which Artemisia princeps and Allium sativum were mentioned, and on the myth of the founding monarch of Shilla, Bak Hyeokgeose, which starts from Lagenaria leucantha (瓟; Lee, 1999). There are records on Lactuca sativa, Dioscorea batatas and Raphanus sativus in the period of the Three States; Oenanthe javanica, Cucumis sativus L. and Cucumis melo var. makuwa in the period of the Unified Shilla; and Cucumis sativus L., Solanum melongena, Raphanus sativus, Allium fistulosum L., Malva verticillata L., Lagenaria leucantha, Brasenia schreberi, Codonopsis lanceolata (Siebold & Zucc) Trautv., Allium sativum for. pekinense Makino, Pyrus serotina Rehder, Oenanthe javanica, Acorus calamus, Sanguisorba officinalis, Portulaca oleracea, Artemisia princeps, Sagittaria sagittifolia, Phytolacca esculenta VanHoutte, Xanthium strumarium, Panax ginseng, Chrysanthemum morifolium, Achyranthes japonica, Benicasa hispida, Allium fistulosum L., Plantango asiatica L., Asarum sieboldii Miq, Akebia quinata, Arctium lappa L., etc. in the period of Goryeo (Lee, 1999). Vegetables are crops that have been cultivated by people among namuls (wild vegetables) in nature. Namul is a native Korean word, and is connected to the “long-held knowledge system” discussed in evolutionary anthropology (Shin, 2012). These crops are suitable for the natural characteristics of this region, and contain humanistic implications such as management convenience, aesthetic and seasonal values, and promotion of public welfare such as flowers and fruits, which demonstrates the effective values of vegetable gardens that people in modern times want.

Composition of Gwanhyuji and crop names in each category (total 128 species)

Historicality

Each crop that grows in vegetable gardens has its own story, and the story has long been passed down orally. The storytelling that this study focused on is not to recite events over time, but to unfold values obtained after overcoming changes and hardships in life or the meaning of life obtained in the process. This study attempted to deliver messages that contain these values and meaning and are easily understandable based on the framework of traditional stories (Im, 2011), and to create a bond of sympathy in the form of communication by increasing people’s interest in crops.

The first record reviewed in this study was a story about Allium fistulosum L., Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Lactuca sativa, Capsicum annum, Solanum melongena, Cucurbita spp. and Lagenaria leucantha mentioned in Nonggawalryungga (農家月令歌). Our ancestors raised their immunity and overcame spring fever by picking and seasoning abundant wild vegetables (namuls) in spring on mountains and fields, eating those namuls in daily life. In particular, sprouts in spring mostly have a bitter taste which reduces the fever and relieves drowsy and sluggish feelings, and stimulates people’s appetite. For this reason, most families had a vegetable garden within their houses in the past, and one of the most basic and general foods in our daily meals is vegetables including mushroom and tree shoots (Fig. 3). Nonggawalryungga is the song that our ancestors enjoyed, and in particular the lyrics of the first, second and third months of the year contains stories about namuls. “The first month of the year - Add regrowing a lettuce and water parsley to radish sprouts. It looks fresh and no need to envy the five spicy vegetables. Boil dried wild vegetables. They give six flavors. The second month of the year - Too early to pick wild vegetables on mountains. Pick namuls on fields instead. Korean lettuces, a lettuce and artemisia. Wild chive kimchi and shepherd’s purse soup raise your appetite. The third month of the year - Plant pumpkin under fences, gourd under eaves, wax gourd near walls. They will creep over the walls. Plant white radish, cabbage, curled mallow, lettuce, chili, eggplant, green onion and garlic on every corner of the ground, Cut pussy willow and make fences. Protect them from dogs and chickens, and then they will grow thickly. Make a separate field for cucumber, and manure the field fully. There’s nothing better than cucumber as a summer side dish.”

Fig. 3

Crops in storytelling.

Another record that this study reviewed was Baktaryeong in Heungboga (興甫歌), one of the twelve original pieces of pansori, in which Malva verticillata (described as 破樓草) and Lactuca sativa (described as 越江草) were mentioned to sing the hidden charms of ordinary things with the story of Goryeo women who were taken to the Yuan Dynasty. In Donguibogam (東醫寶鑑), Allium fistulosum and Spinacia oleracea (described as 菠菱菜) were introduced as a plant that relaxes the five viscera. Gwanhyuji (灌畦志) in Imwongyeongjeji (林園經濟志) written by Seo, Yoo-Ku introduced medicinal herbs found on mountains and fields in Joseon including Platycodon grandiflorus, Polygonatum odoratum, Angelica gigas and Ledebouriella seseloides, and tells how Seo cooked side dishes with herbs that he collected from vegetable gardens, mountains and fields including Coriandrum sativum, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Allium tuberosum and Petasites japonicus. Lastly, Gujongbeop (區種法), a farming technique introduced by Seo, and Brassica rapa var. glabra Regel were also briefly summarized in order to suggest efficient ways to manage vegetable gardens in this study (Fig. 3).

Health functionality

Vegetables are a group of herbaceous plants cultivated by humans for food, and there are about 800 vegetables around the world (Lee, 2005). The number of vegetables consumed in Korea reaches over 140 including traditional Korean vegetables that have long been consumed and western vegetables that have been recently introduced to Korea (Lee, 2005). As people’s interest in health increases recently, about 35 crops were suggested as ‘storytelling native resources’ and health functional crops in the list of Healthy plants on mountains and fields that have anti-aging effects (Jang, 2009). They were compared to those of which effects were identified in Donguibogam among crops selected in Gwanhyuji, and the results coincided with the finding of Cha et al. (2006) that they have various effects that can meet urban residents’ needs for healthy foods (Table 2).

Anti-aging (antioxidant) functional crops with health benefits

Popularity

Based on Imwongyeongjeji, a historical content that was written by Seo, Yoo-Ku, crops that tell the stories and values of traditional life in Korea were selected and people’s preference was surveyed. According to the results of a questionnaire survey that was conducted during the 7th Urban Agriculture Expo in Korea in 2018, visitors were found to prefer vegetables the most followed by floricultural plants, herbs and medicinal crops. Among vegetables, Capsicum annuum was preferred the most, followed by Lactuca sativa, Solanum melongena, Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Cucumis sativus, Brassica rapa var. glabra Regel, Raphanus sativus, Spinacia oleracea, Daucus carota and Allium fistulosum (Fig. 4). Among herbs and medicinal crops, Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula species were preferred the most, followed by Mentha piperascens, Ligularia fischeri, Ocimum basilicum, Angelica gigas and Matricaria chamomilla (Fig. 4). During the interview, photos of crops were shown, and cultivation methods and effects were explained to visitors, and they showed their intention to purchase them. This indicates that they had a low awareness of the name of crops and a low level of knowledge about cultivation methods, which seemed to lead to a lack of diversity in the list of purchased crops, and people were also found to purchase certain crops only.

Fig. 4

Preferences of vegetables and herb & medicinal plants.

Suggestion of crops for historical and cultural vegetable gardens

Crops for urban vegetable gardens were reviewed, and a total of 128 species mentioned in the ancient literature were listed according to their Korean and scientific name based on their Chinese character name, and they were assessed based on the criteria suggested using an interpretative inquiry method including traditionality, historicality, health functionality and popularity. Those who met more than three criteria were selected as a crop that can improve the humanistic value of urban agriculture (Table 3).

Names of crops from Gwanhyuji and assessment of eligibility in four criteria

Focusing on the list of 128 species, their stories that were recorded in Gwanhyuji were reviewed, and those that were found to show a high healthy functionality and popularity were finally classified as shown in Table 4. They were basically classified based on the classification criteria in Gwanhyuji, and, according to the properties of crops, they were classified into the categories of vegetables, fruits and grasses, vegetables on mountains and fields, medicinal plants and flowers. Those that have overlapping properties were classified into multiple groups.

Recommended crops for culture garden with high health functionality and popularity

Properties and tastes of selected crops

The properties of crops in Imwongyeongjeji and Donguibogam are divided into the five Qi (五氣): hot (熱) ⋅ warm (溫) ⋅ calm (平) ⋅ cool (凉) ⋅ cold (寒), and their tastes are divided into five tastes (五味): sweet, salty, sour, bitter and spicy. Compared to the properties and efficacy of plants recorded in various documents, they can be used to prevent and treat diseases utilizing their interaction and efficacy in the body of humans (Cha et al., 2006). Ancestors applied the properties and tastes of crops to the treatment of diseases, developed their recipes and consumed them in order to wisely utilize their efficacy. In particular, the consumed amount of vegetables has significantly decreased over time as people’ dietary lifestyle changes.

There were a total of 20 crops that are cold (寒) and have a sweet taste including Foeniculum vulgare, Beta vulgaris, Malva verticillata, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Spinacia oleracea, Oenanthe javanica, Lagenaria leucantha, Lagenaria siceraria var. gourda, Cucumis sativus, Benicasa hispida, Solanum melongena, Hemerocallis fulva, Pteridium aquilinum, Senna tora, Adenophora remotiflora Miq., Asparagus cochinchinensis Merr., Liriope platyphylla, Plantago asiatica, Lilium longiflorum, Althaea rosea. There were four crops that are cold (寒) and have a spicy taste including Foeniculum vulgare, Allium fistulosum, Chenopodium album var. centrorubrum and Platycodon grandiflora and one crop has a sour taste (Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii). A total of nine crops were found to be cold (寒) and have a bitter taste including Aralia elata SEEM, Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus, Senna tora L., Asparagus cochinchinensis, Liriope platyphylla, Platycodon grandiflora Jacq., Arctium lappa L., and Lilium long-iflorum Thunb. There were a total of 6 crops that are warm (溫) and have a sweet taste including Stachys japonica Miq., Daucus carota var. sativa, Cucurbita spp., Ligularia fischeri, Angelica gigas Nakai and Rehmannia glutinosa (Gaerth.) Libosch. ex Steud. and 15 crops were found to have a spicy taste including Brassica napus, Capsicum annuum L., Stachys japonica Miq., Coriandrum sativum L., Brassica juncea L., Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng, Daucus carota var. sativa, Zingiber mioga Thunb., Zingiber officinale ROSC, Petasites japonicus, Ligularia fischeri, Angelica gigas Nakai, Mentha piperascens, Caryopteris incana Miq., and Carthamus tinctorius L. Two crops including Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng and Sesamum indicum were found to have a sour taste, and Mentha piperascens and Stachys japonica Miq. were found to have a bitter taste(Table 5). There were a total of 10 crops that were calm (平) and have a sweet taste including Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Codonopsis lanceolata, Daucus carota var. sativa, Ipomoea aquatica, Lagenaria leucantha Rusby, Lagenaria siceraria var. gourda, Luffa cylindrica L., Oenanthe javanica DC., Perilla frutescens var. acuta, and Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum and five crops including Codonopsis lanceolata, Colocasia esculenta L., Daucus carota var. sativa, Perilla frutescens var. acuta, and Petasites japonicus were found to have a spicy taste. Two crops including Achyranthes japonica and Physalis alkekengi var.francheti were found to have a sour taste, and Achyranthes japonica and Arctium lappa were found to have a bitter taste (Table 5). These results coincided with the findings of Cha et al. (2006). The properties (cold, warm, clam) of the selected crops were evenly distributed, and there was no crop that was hot and cool. In addition, the number of crops that have a sweet taste was the highest, followed by spicy and bitter, but there was no vegetable that has a salty taste (Table 5).

Classification of 53 species by taste & properties as proposed by Donguibogam

Conclusion

Recently, as healthy city, aging-friendly city, safe city and happy city are selected as a future keyword about city, the importance of urban agriculture has been highlighted as a mean to facilitate interactions and create mutually cooperative relations between neighbors, to improve the health of individuals and their quality of life and to form families and communities (Lim, 2017).

Vegetables recorded in Imwongyeongjeji (林園經濟志)-Gwanhyuji (灌畦志) were examined, and the following crops were selected: crops that have traditionality (nativeness) and reflect the philosophy of Silhak, a Korean Confucian social reform movement in late Joseon that put people’s livelihood first; crops that have historic values (historicity) such as those that were passed down orally or as a myth; and crops that have health functionality required in modern society and popularity. As a result, a total 53 crops were finally selected out of 128 vegetables. The properties (cold, warm, clam) of the selected crops were evenly distributed, and there was no crop that was hot and cool. In addition, the number of crops that have a sweet taste was the highest, followed by spicy and bitter, but there was no vegetable that has a salty taste, which can be attributed to the fact that 12 namuls that grow in seas were excluded in this study since they were not suitable for urban gardens.

This study suggested 53 crops that show the philosophy of Yaksikdongwon (藥食同源) through which our ancestors made efforts to control vital functions for healthy life through foods and medicinal plants and to promote health and prevent diseases through food intake. The selected crops are also expected to contribute to meeting urban residents’ intellectual curiosity by planting them in vegetable gardens with humanistic themes and expanding the base for the growing demand for urban agriculture depending on the characteristics of urban residents. At the same time, through humanistic urban agricultural activities, people can restore the value of labor in daily life, and enjoy social and physical effects among multiple benefits of urban agriculture.

As a content resource in the era of cultural consilience and convergence, humanities can be applied to urban agriculture, which can transform urban vegetable gardens that focus on primary production and secondary consumption activities into a new resource that offers educational and traditional values as one of the fourth industries. It will be also possible to satisfy urban residents’ intellectual and participatory needs and enhance the diversity and utility of urban vegetable gardens by developing and distributing models that incorporate traditional knowledge as a historical and cultural resource. It is expected to lead the findings of this study into new types and models of urban agriculture that urban residents can enjoy in reality.

Acknowledgements

This study was supported by the Rural Development Administration (PJ01260702).

References

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Article information Continued

Fig. 1

The content of the study.

Fig. 2

Process of crop search.

Fig. 3

Crops in storytelling.

Fig. 4

Preferences of vegetables and herb & medicinal plants.

Table 1

Composition of Gwanhyuji and crop names in each category (total 128 species)

Vol. Title Contents
1 Introduction Farmland preparation / planting / fertilizing / harvest and storage
2 Vegetables (100 species) Allium chinense(Bakeri), Allium fistulosum L., Allium monanthum Maxim., Allium sativum, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng., Amaranthus mangostanus L., Aralia elata(Miq.) Seem., Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., Brassica juncea(L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., Brassica nigra, Brassica oleracea var. acephala, Brassica rapa L., Brassica rapa var. glabra Regel, Brasenia schreberi J.F.Gmelin, Capsicum annum L., Caryopteris incana(Thunb. ex Houtt.) Miq., Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Coriandrum sativum L., Daucus carota L., Foeniculum vulgare Mill, Ipomoea aquatia ‘Reptans’, Lactuca sativa L., Lentinns edodes, Lilium lancifolium Thunb., Malva verticillata L., Medicago polymorpha L., Oenanthe javanica(Blume) DC., Perilla frutescens var. acuta, Persicaria longiseta(Bruijn) Kitag., Raphanus sativus L., Spinacia oleracea L., Stachys japonica Miq., Zingiber mioga(Thunb.) Roscoe, Zingiber officinale Roscoe.
Addition: Reference vegetables(28 species), vegetables in mountains and fields(27 species), vegetables from the sea(12 species)
3 Fruits (8 species) Benincasa cerifera Savi, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott. Cucumis sativus L., Cucurbita noschata Duchesne, Lagenaria leucantha Rusby, Luffa cylindrica (L.) M. Roem., Solanum melongena L., Trichasanthes kirilowii. var. japonica kitam.
4 Medicinal plants (20 species) Achyranthes japonica(Miq.) Nakai, Adenophora remotiflora(Siebold&Zucc) Miq., Angelica acutiloba(Siebold & Zucc) kitag., Angelica polymorpha Maxim, Arctium lappa L., Asparagus cochinchinensis(Lour.) Merr., Attactylodes ovata(Thunb) DC., Codonopsis lanceolata(Siebold & Zucc), Elsholtzia ciliata(Thunb.) HYI., Ledebouriella seseloides(Hoffm) H.Wolft, Liriope platyphylla F.T.Wang & T.Tang, Mentha piperascens(Malinv.) Holmes, Panax ginseng C.A.Mey, Plantango asiatica L. Platycodon grandiflorum(Jacq.), Polygonatum lasianthum Maxim, Polygonatum odoratum, Polygonatum stenophyllum Maxim, Rehmannia glutinosa(Gaerth.) Liboschitz, Senna tora(L.) Roxb., Schizonepeta tenuifolia var japonica(Maxim) Kitag.

Table 2

Anti-aging (antioxidant) functional crops with health benefits

Anti-oxidant crops in Healthful crops in mountains and fields (35 species)
Allium fistulosum Fragaria x ananassa Punica granatum L.
Allium hookeri Thwaites Glycine max Rhododendron mucronulatum
Allium sativum for. pekinense MAKINO Kalopanax septemlobus Rubus crataegifolius Bunge
Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.) Medik. Lycium chinense Miller Schizandra chinensis BAALL
Cirsium setidens Mornordica charantia Linnaeus Senna tora L.
Codonopsis lanceolata(Siebold&Zucc.) Trautv. Opuntia humifusa X Sesamun indicum
Crepidiastrum sonchifolium(Bunge) Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer Solanum melongena L.
Cucurbita maxima Platago asiatica L. Taraxacum platycarpum
Curcuma domestica Platycodon grandiflora Jacq. Viscum album var. coloratum
Dendranthema indicum Portulaca oleracea L. Vitis vinifera L.
Dioscorea japonica Thunb. Prunus persica Zizyphus jujuba Mill.
Epimedium koreanum NAKAI Prunus tomentosa

Table 3

Names of crops from Gwanhyuji and assessment of eligibility in four criteria

Division Crop name Eligible field


Chinese Korean Scientific name Traditionality Historicality Health functionality Popularity
蔬類 Vegetables 芥藍 개람 Brassica oleracea var. acephala Bailey o x x x
苜蓿 개자리 Medicago polymorpha L. o x x x
겨자 Brassica juncea o x x x
胡荽 고수 Coriandrum sativum o o x o
番椒 고추 Capsicum annum o o o o
蕹菜 공심채 Ipomoea aquatia o o x o
菾菜 근대 Beta vulgaris var. cicla o o o o
百合 나리 Lilium longiflorum o o x o
紫葱 달래 Chrysosplenium ramosum Maxim. o o x x
木頭菜 두릅나무 Aralia elata(Miq.) Seem o x o o
蒜附澤蒜 마늘 Allium sativum for. pekinense Makino o o o o
미나리 Oenanthe javanica o o o o
菜菔附胡蘿蔔 무(당근) Raphanus sativus (Daucus carota.) o o x o
배추 Brassica rapa var. glabra Regel o o x o
#xBC84;섯 Lentinns edodes(Berk.) Pegler o x x x
부추 Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng. o o o o
비름 Amaranthus mangostanus L. o o o o
萵苣 #xC0C1;추 Lactuca sativa o o x o
생강 Zingiber officinale o o o o
甘露子 석잠풀 Stachys japonica Miq. o o x o
蕪菁 순무 Brassica rapa o x x x
순채 Brasenia schreberi o x x x
茼蒿 쑥갓 Chrysanthemum coronarium L. o o o o
菠薐 시금치 Spinacia oleracea L. o o o o
아욱 Malva verticillata L. o o o o
蘘荷 양하 Zingiber mioga(Thunb.) Roscoe o o x o
여뀌 Persicaria hydropiper o x x x
염교 Allium chinense(Bakeri) o x x x
蕓薹 운대(유채) Brassica napus L. o o x o
紫蘇 차조기 Perilla frutescens var. acuta o o x o
蘭香 층꽃나무 Caryopteris incana(Thunb. ex Houtt.) Miq. o x x o
Allium fistulosum L. o o o o
茴香 회향 Foeniculum vulgare Miller o o x o

附互考蔬品 Reference vegetables 馬尾菜 #xAC08;대순 Phragmites communis Trin. o x x x
珊瑚菜 #xAC2F;방풍의 싹 Glehnia littoralis o o x x
決明苗 #xACB0;명자의 싹 Senna tora(L.) Roxb. o x o x
甛菜 #xAD6C;기자나무의 싹 Lycium chinense Mill. o x o x
蘼蕪 #xAD81;궁이의 싹 Angelica polymorpla Maxim. o x x x
香菜 #xB178;야기의 싹 Elscholtzia patrini GARCK. o x x x
菉豆芽菜 #xB179;두의 싹 Vigna radiata o x x x
黃豆芽菜 #xB204;런콩의 싹 Glycine max Merr. o x x x
辛甘菜 #xB2F9;귀의 싹 Angelica gigas o o x x
萎㽔苗 #xB465;글레의 싹 Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum o o x x
薺苨苗根 #xBAA8;싯대의싹/뿌리 Adenophora remotiflora(S, et Z.) Miq. o x x x
薄荷苗 #xBC15;하의 싹 Mentha piperascens o x x x
蒲筍 #xBD80;들순 Typha orientalis o x x x
霎周菜 #xC0BD;주의 싹 Atractylodes japonica o x x x
對節菜 #xC1E0;무릎의 싹 Achyranthes japonica o x x x
鹿藿 여유콩의 싹 Rhynchosia volubilis o x x x
五加苗 오가피나무의 싹 Eleutherococcus sessiliflorus o x x x
牛蒡苗 우엉의 싹 Arctium lappa L. o o x x
忘憂菜 원추리의 싹 Hemerocallis fulva(L.) L. o x x x
紅花菜 잇꽃의 싹 Carthamus tinctorius L. o o x o
蜀葵苗 접시꽃의 싹 Althaea rosea o o x o
竹筍 죽순 Phyllostachys bambusoides Siebold & Zucc o x x x
地黃苗 지황의 싹 Rehmannia glutinosa o x x x
車輪菜 질경이의 싹 Plantago asiatica L. o x o x
靑蘘 참깨의 싹 Sesamum indicum o x x x
筆頭菜 층층둥글레의 싹 Polygonatum stenophyllum Maxim. o x x x
荊芥苗 형개의 싹 Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. o x x x
槐芽菜 회화나무의 싹 Sophora japonica o x x x

附山野蔌品 Vegetables in mountains and fields 고비 Osmunda japonica o x x x
고사리 Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum o o x o
熊蔬 곰취 Ligularia fischeri o o x o
酸醬草 꽈리 Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii o x o o
냉이 Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.) Medik. o x o x
山芥 는쟁이냉이 Cardamine komarouvi NAKAI o x x x
香蒿 덤불쑥 Artemisia rubripes NAKAI o x x x
冬蔬 동취 - o x x x
馬薺 말냉이 Thlaspi arvense L. o x x x
白菜 머위 Petasites japonicus o o x o
명아주 Chenopodium album var. centrorubrum o x x x
蔞蒿 물쑥 Artemisia selengensis Turce ex Besser o x x x
苦菜 방가지똥(씀바귀) Sonchus oleraceus o x x x
繁縷 별꽃 Stellaria media(L.) Vill. o x x x
麥蕈 보리볏짚버섯 Agrocybe erebia o x x x
墨應耳菜 산마늘 Allium microdictyon prokh. o x x o
小巢菜 새완두 Vicia hirsuta(L.) Gray o x x x
石耳 석이 Umbilicara esculenta o x x x
羊蹄 소리쟁이 Rumex crispus L. o x x x
松茸 #xC1A1;이 Tricholoma matsutake o x x x
水蘇 #xC218;소 Stachys baiodensis Fisch ex. Benth o x x x
약모밀 Houttuynia cordata Thunb. o x o o
黃花菜 원추리의 꽃 Hemerocallis fulva(L.) o o x o
紫芥 자개 Stereopsis burtiarum o x x x
灰藋 좀명아주 Chenopodium ficifolium o x x x
凊兒菜 청아채 - o x x x
靑玉菜 #xCCAD;옥채 - o x x x
乾苔 건태 Porphyra tenera o x x x
羹苔 #xAC31;태 - o x x x
昆布 #xAE34;다시마 Laminaria angustata o x x x
紫菜 Porphyra tenera o x x x
苺山苔 매생이 Capsosiphon fulvescens o x x x
海藻 모자반 Sargassum fulvellum(Tumer) C. Agardh o x x x
海凍草 우뭇가사리 Gelidium amansii LAMOUROUX o x x x
鹿角菜 #xC9C4;두발 Chondrus ocelatus Homes. o x x x
海帶 참다시마 Laminaria japonica o x x x
靑角菜 청각 Codium fragile o x x x
海蘊 큰실말 - o x x x
土衣菜 Hizikia fusifore(HALVEY) OKAMURA o x x x

蓏類 Fruits 가지 Solanum melongena o o x o
冬瓜 동아 Benincasa hispida Thunb. o x o o
박(편포) Lagenaria leucantha o o x o
絲瓜 수세미외 Luffa cylindrica o x o o
黃瓜 오이 Cucumis sativus L. o o x o
王瓜 주먹외 Thladiantha dubia o x x x
토란 Colocasia esculenta o x o o
南瓜 호박 Cucurbita spp. o o x o

藥類 Medicinal plants 防風 갯방풍 Glehnia littoralis o o x o
決明 결명자 Senna tora L. o x o o
芎藭 궁궁이 Angelica polymorpha Maxim o x x x
香薷 노야기 Elsholtzia patrini GARCK o x x x
沙蔘 더덕 Codonopsis lanceolata(Siebold&Zucc) Trautv. o x o o
桔梗 도라지 Platycodon grandiflorum o o o o
萎蕤 둥글레 Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum o o o o
麥門冬 맥문동 Liriope platyphylla F.T.Wang& T.Tang o x o o
薺苨 모싯대 Adenophora remotiflora(Siebold&Zucc.) Miq. o x o o
薄荷 박하 Mentha piperascens o x o o
삽주 Atractylodes japonica o x x x
牛膝 쇠무릎 Achyranthes japonica o x o o
當歸 승검초(당귀) Angelica gigas o o o o
牛蒡 우엉 Arctium lappa L. o x o o
人蔘 인삼 Panax ginseng C.A.Mey. o x o x
地黃 지황 Rehmannia glutinosa(Gaerth.) Liboschtz o x o o
車前 질경이 Plantango asiatica L. o x o o
天門冬 #xCC9C;문동 Asparagus cochinchinensis Merr. o x o o
黃精 층층둥글레 Polygonatum stenophyllum Maxim. o x x o
荊芥 형개 Schizonepeta tenuifolia Briq. o x x x

Table 4

Recommended crops for culture garden with high health functionality and popularity

Garden type Crop
Vegetables Allium fistulosum L., Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng.*, Amaranthus mangostanus L., Aralia elata SEEM, Beta vulgaris L., Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., Capsicum annuum L., Chrysanthemum coronarium L.*, Coriandrum sativum L., Daucus carota, Foeniculum vulgare, Ipomoea aquatica, Lactuca sativa L.*, Malva verticilata L., Oenanthe javanica (Blume) DC., Perilla frutescens var. acuta, Spinacia oleracea L.*, Stachys japonica Miq., Zingiber mioga (Thunb.) Roscoe, Zingiber officinale ROSC
Fruits & grasses Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng,* Benincasa hispida Thunb., Chrysanthemum coronarium L.*, Colocasia esculenta (L.), Cucumis sativus, Cucurbita spp., Lagenaria leucantha Rusby, Lagenaria siceraria var. gourda, Lactuca sativa L.*, Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem., Solanum melongena L., Spinacia oleracea L.*
Mountains & fields Hemerocallis fulva*, Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Ligularia fischeri, Petasites japonicus, Physalis alkekengi var. francheti*, Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum
Medicinal plants Achyranthes japonica, Adenophora remotiflora (Siebold&Zucc.), Angelica gigas Nakai, Arctium lappa, Asparagus cochinchinensis Merr., Codonopsis lancelota, Liriope platyphylla, Mentha piperascens, Plantago asiatica L., Platycodon grandiflora Jacq., Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum, Rehmannia glutinosa(Gaerth.) Libosch. ex Steud., Senna tora L.*
Flowers Althaea rosea (L.) Cav., Carthamus tinctorius L., Caryopteris incana Miq., Hemerocallis fulva*, Lilium longiflorum Thunb., Physalis alkekengi var. francheti*, Senna tora L.*, Sesamum indicum, Cassia tora L.*

Note. The crop with the asterisk belongs to multiple groups.

Table 5

Classification of 53 species by taste & properties as proposed by Donguibogam

Sweet Salty Spicy Sour Bitter
Cold (寒) Adenophora remotiflora, Althaea rosea L. Amaranthus mangostanus L., Asparagus cochinchinensis Merr.*, Benincasa hispida Thunb., Beta vulgaris L., Brassica juncea L., Cucumis sativus*, Foeniculum vulgare*, Hemerocallis fulva, Lagenaria leucantha Rusby*, Lagenaria siceraria var. gourda*, Lilium longiflorum Thunb.*, Liriope platyphylla*, Malva verticillata L., Oenanthe javanica DC.*, Plantago asiatica L., Senna tora L.*, Solanum melongena L., Spinacia oleracea L. - Allium fistulosum, Foeniculum vulgare*, Houttuynia cordata Thunb., Platycodon grandiflora Jacq.* Physalis alkekengi var. francheti* Aralia elata SEEM, Arctium lappa*, Asparagus cochinchinensis Merr.*, Cucumis sativus*, Lactuca sativa L., Lilium longiflorum Thunb.*, Liriope platyphylla*, Platycodon grandiflora Jacq.*, Senna tora L.*
Warm (溫) Angelica gigas Nakai*, Cucurbita spp., Daucus carota*, Ligularia fischeri*, Rehmannia glutinosa(Gaerth.) Libosch. ex Steud., Stachys japonica Miq.* - Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng*, Angelica gigas Nakai*, Brassica juncea L., Brassica napus, Capsicum annuum L., Carthamus tinctorius L. Caryopteris incana Miq., Coriandrum satium L., Daucus carota*, Ligularia fischeri*, Mentha piperascens*, Petasites japonicus, Stachys japonica Miq.*, Zingiber mioga Thunb., Zingiber officinale ROSC, Allium tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng*, Sesamum indicum Mentha piperascens*, Stachys japonica Miq.*
Calm (平) Chrysanthemum coronarium L., Codonopsis lanceolata*, Daucus carota*, Ipomoea aquatica, Lagenaria leucantha Rusby*, Lagenaria siceraria var. gourda*, Luffa cylindrica L., Oenanthe javanica DC.*, Perilla frutescens var. acuta*, Polygonatum odoratum var. pluriflorum - Codonopsis lanceolata*, Colocasia esculenta L., Daucus carota*, Perilla frutescens var. acuta*, Petasites japonicus*, Achyranthes japonica*, Physalis alkekengi var.francheti* Achyranthes japonica* Arctium lappa*

Note. The crop with the asterisk has multiple tastes or multiple properties.